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By clicking here you can go to a specific step and part

Step 1: Introduction

Step 1 Part 1 ▾

Step 1 Part 2 ▾

Step 2: Learning more about the context and topic

Step 2 Part 1 ▾

Step 2 Part 2 ▾

Step 3: Research and creation of the documentary

Step 3 Part 1 ▾

Step 4:  Sharing and reflection

Step 4 Part 1 ▾

Step 4 Part 2 ▾

Step 1 Part 1 - Introduction

Questionnaire

The introduction has the objective of introducing the project and motivating students.

Step 1 Part 2 - Starter clip

Step 2 Part 1 - The 'then and now' of the Bosnian conflict

Nikola Kuridža

Serbian. Born in 20/07/1989. Born and raised in Prijedor.

He was  three years old when the  terrible crimes took place and as he said, he was unable to understand the seriousness of the situation and the changes it brought about.

His impressions about the remembrance of the war :

“Our first reaction is to deny it, or to downplay it, or somehow explain it to yourself and to provide some sort of answer for it. I went to an elementary school which at that time, only Serbian students attended. In fact, the entire syllabus was taught from the Serbian perspective, it was hard for me to get out of that. That was the greatest challenge, the lack of information. My parents refused to talk about it. There was nobody I could talk to about it.”

Nikola's mother, Desanka Kuridža Knežević

Serbian

Her impression about the remembrance of the war 

We all know what happened. Everyone knows. It can’t be that somebody does not know. But people do not talk about it, they simply do not. Here and there when you bring it up you hear: “And what have they done to us?” There, referring to other regions

“I thought it would be good to protect him." (by not telling him more about what happened)

Fikret Bačić

Bosniak. Born in 21/03/1958, in Zecovi (Prijedor) His whole family comes from there.

During the war he was in Germany, until he heard his village had been attacked.

He went to Croatia to a refugee camp in Rijeka. There he found 1 of the 3 family members who survived the massacre: his 17 year old nephew. The boy confirmed the news of the attack.

Fikret took his nephew with him to Germany and returned permanently to Bosnia in 1998.  

Nowadays he works as an independent  entrepreneur with a small food shop.

His impression about the the remembrance of the war :

“My return to Bosnia, especially my return to Prijedor, my pre-war residence, was motivated by my wish to find my relatives’ bodies. From the talks I had with neighbours, I know that most of them know where the bodies are. 99% of them know where the bodies were taken, but none of them want to tell me.”

Inhabitants of Prijedor

Their remembrance of the war:

We know there was a conflict, it’s over, we’re moving on. There has to be conversation. But not in the context of hate or intolerance. The truth has to be known, if you’re asking me. It has to be told to younger generations. But we aren’t guilty for all of it.” 

 “Any victims here? No! You always pretend it was a camp”. “That’s not a concentration camp”. “The Muslims think it is.” 

“I was a child back then, I was just born.”

“What? I have no information. I was here, and I’ve had enough.”

Timeline of Yugoslav Wars

You can find the timeline for the Yugoslav Wars here The timeline of the Yugoslav Wars 

Ethnic Distribution

A number of ethnic and religious groups lived together in former Yugoslavia: Orthodox Serbs, Roman-Catholic Croats, Muslim Bosniaks and other minorities. 

Bosnia-Herzegovina ethnic distribution (1992-1996)

Bosnia-Herzegovina by territories (1996)

Yugoslav Wars Maps

Yugoslavia in 1989

Factsheet of the Bosnian War

download this factsheet as a word doc here

Step 2 Part 2 - Difficult History

Secret protocols brought to light by singing: Baltic way

The Baltic Way was a peaceful political demonstration that occurred in August 1989 in the former Soviet republics of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The protest was designed to draw attention to the desire for independence from the Soviet Union of each of the Baltic countries. An independence that was lost in 1940. More than 2 million people stood holding hands and sang songs along the Baltic way, a road connecting the three Baltic capitals Tallinn, Riga and Vilnius.

What happened?

Between the two world wars the Baltic countries were independent states. In 1939 the German and Soviet foreign ministers von Ribbentrop and Molotov concluded a treaty of non-aggression between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. The pact included secret protocols dividing Eastern Europe into spheres of influence between themselves. This resulted in the Soviet occupation of the Baltic States in 1940.

source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ribbentrop-Molotov_Pact.jpg

After the Second World War, the Soviet Union had always denied the existence of the secret protocols. From 1985 on Mikhail Gorbatsjov initiated his policies of glasnost and perestroika (“reconstruction” and”openness” or transparency) A commission of investigation was installed. In 1989 the commission concluded that the protocol had existed. Both successor-states of the Treaty,  Germany and the Soviet Union declared the protocols to be invalid from the moment they were signed. 

Within a year of the protests on the Baltic way the three states regained their independence in 1991.

In 2009, the European parliament proclaimed 23 August, the anniversary of the Molotov-von Ribbentrop Pact,  as European Day of Remembrance for Victims of Stalinism and Nazism.

The Singing Revolution
source: https://www.ststworld.com/the-baltic-way-when-two-million-people-formed-a-human-chain-demanding-freedom/

An inconvenient history: The story of the Moluccans

After the independence of Indonesia from Dutch colonial rule in 1945, the Dutch fought a violent war to stop the decolonisation of Indonesia. When the Dutch government in 1949 acknowledged the independence,  many people from Indonesia went to the Netherlands.

Among the Indonesians, the  Moluccans, who were in a special position, went to the Netherlands. The Moluccans are the Austronesian-speaking and Papuan-speaking ethnic groups indigenous to the Maluku Islands.  For ages Moluccans had been recruited in the Dutch colonial army. They were considered good soldiers and very loyal to Dutch authority.

After the war of independence, the Moluccans found themselves in an awkward, uncomfortable, situation and the Moluccans declared themselves independent from Indonesia. 

Indonesia. Republik Maluku Selatan in green<br/><br/><br/>

Indonesia. Republik Maluku Selatan in green


However, the Republik Maluku Selatan was not recognised by the Indonesian government.  Because of this, the Moluccan soldiers and their families feared they might become victim of reprisals. In December 1950 a court in The Hague decided that they could not be demobilised and were ordered to embark a ship heading for the Netherlands. This sojourn (temporary stay ) was considered to be temporarily. Upon arrival these loyal soldiers were immediately and unceremoniously discharged. They and their families were housed in two former concentration camps and left stateless and unemployed. They lived among themselves, quite separated from Dutch society, ‘forgotten’ by the government.

Step 3 Part 1 - Research and creation of the documentary based on examples of local history

Rolecards

Researcher

Your functions are:                                                          

  • To investigate the subject of the film on the basis of the central enquiry question. 

  • To search for stories, main persons, archive material (photographs and films that can be used freely) and historical background articles.

  • To check whether the stories are really true. Collect the names and details of the main characters and make the first contact for an interview.

Responsibilities:

NB: in this project, the research is carried out by the entire group.

  • Those who choose the position of researcher are specifically responsible for checking the sources and data (finding out the truth) and for making agreements with the guests/main persons. 

  • During the recording, the researcher provides content support to the interviewer.

  • The researchers make a list of names and functions for the titles in the editing.

*Watch the research tutorial → with your group for more details and read through the steps for researching below

Steps for researching ▾

CLICK HERE to open ⌄

Steps for researching (role for the whole group)

Brainstorm and look for sources

  • First, brainstorm together on how you would like to approach this question so that you can specifically search for the resources you need. What do you want to investigate? Who would answer this question best and where would you find stories about this question?

  • Use different research methods and read different sources as recommended in the tutorial.

  • Write down the sources you use and the information they provide.

  • Make sure you check your sources. Ask yourself, are they reliable?

Mind map

  • Create a profile of the person you would like to interview.

    • What are you actually looking for? What kind of profile does this person have and from what perspective do you want to highlight the theme? From what perspective do you want to tell your story?

  • Compare your mind map with the sources and people you have found and make a choice.

Content summary and plan of action

  • Write a short summary of the research. Include checks and balances as explained in the tutorial.

  • Write a plan of action as indicated in the tutorial

  • Keep in close contact with the interviewer at this stage. He or she will formulate his or her questions based on your data.

Personal contact (do this together with the interviewer)

  • Get in contact with your main character(s).

  • In order to determine whether your main character is really the right person for your film, personal contact is very important. 

  • Set a date for the interview.

  • Check the specific names and titles of your main characters.

Photos

  • If you search for photos, make sure they are free of copyright restrictions as indicated in the tutorial.

Planning

  • Meet with your group to plan out the time you have to make the movie.

    • How much time do you need to spend on research? 

    • When will you conduct the interviews? 

    • How long do you want to take to edit?

  • Make appointments with your main characters and ask permission to film at certain locations.

TO CLOSE THIS FILE CLICK AT 'SLUIT' ^

Interviewer

Your functions are:                                              

  • To ask the guest or main character the interview questions. 

  • To  prepare the interview/questionnaire on the basis of the researcher's information.

  • In consultation with the group, to choose a form of interview that suits the type of documentary chosen. (see tutorial). 

  • To maintain close contact with the cameraman/woman and the editor.

  • To speak to the guest in advance and tell the camera and editor what the interview is about.

Responsibilities:

  • Making a questionnaire that fits in with the research.

  • Responsible for good contact with the guest.

  • Responsible for good cooperation with the cameraman.

  • After the editing, inform the guests about which parts of the interview are in the film.

*A good interviewer will watch the interviewing tutorial → and read the steps for interviewing below. He/she will also share main findings with the group.

Steps for interviewing

CLICK HERE to open ⌄

Steps for interviewing

Preparing the interview

Personal contact (do this together with the researcher)

  • Get in contact with your main character(s). In order to determine whether your main character is really the right person for your film, personal contact is very important.
  • Set a date for the interview.

Choose your way of interviewing

  • Choose the style of interviewing as pointed out in the tutorial: 

    • Are you going to be in it as our guide through the whole story or are you the invisible interviewer and will the story tell itself?

  • Write down your questions based on the research.

Planning the filming with the cameraman/woman

  • Where does the interview take place? Inform your cameraman/woman of the circumstances.

  • What do you need to see in order to tell your whole story? 

  • Plan the scenes you need to complete your interview with the cameraman/woman.

Interview

 

  • During the interview make sure to ask all the questions you need.

  • Check with your cameraman/woman if both sound and video are appropriate. (annex 4 shows the form you can use)

  • Ask for specific names and titles.

  • Be polite / be specific / be complete / be kind.

  • Get permission from your main character to show this interview on social media.

  • Get permission from parents through a quit claim ▾  if your main character is under 18.

TO CLOSE THIS FILE CLICK AT 'SLUIT' ^

Cameraman/women

Your functions are :                                             

  • To shoot all the footage for the film. Not only the interview, but also all the images needed to make a good film and build a logical story. 

  • To think about the locations for filming and the actions to be filmed.

  • to consult with the interviewer beforehand so that she/he can determine what and where to film on the basis of the content of the questions. 

  • To keep in close contact with the editor to ensure that there are enough images for editing with enough variation. 

  • To make sure that there is enough light to play with, check that all scenes are properly captured in image and sound.

  • If necessary, to ask a question again or redo a recording. 

Responsibilities:

  • Filming of all images for the film, both interview and environmental shots.

  • Practise filming according to the tutorial if you need it.

  • Provide the right phone with a charged battery and power bank for recording (possibly via your teacher)

  • Responsible for light when filming indoors.

  • Responsible for good sound.

  • Responsible for good cooperation with the interviewer.

  • Responsible for close cooperation with the editor.

* A good cameraman will watch the filming tutorial → and read the steps for filming. If time allows, also watch the editing tutorial →

Steps for filming

CLICK HERE to open ⌄

Steps for filming

Preparing your materials

  • Make sure you have a charged cell phone with a good camera/extra battery pack/sound.

  • If you are filming in a house or building look for lights if you need them (see tutorial).

Preparing the filming

  • Clarify your understanding: 
    • Who is the main character? 

    • What story are we going to tell and what do we need to see?

    • What actions by the main character will add to the story?

    • Where is the best place to tell this story? (her work, his house, their broken down flat , etc.)

    • Make a list of all the scenes you need.

Filming

  • Film horizontally!

  • Reference the technical aspects on the sheet: specifications for filming on mobile phone (annex 4)

  • Use some MS, wide and close up angles during the interview. (see tutorial)

  • Make extra shots of the interviewer listening for the editing.

  • Make extra shots of the main character listening.

  • Use extra tips from the tutorial in improving your filming.

Download your material

  • Bring your material directly to the editor and download together.

Specifications for filming on a mobile phone

VPRO In Europe Schools

Specifications for filming on a mobile phone

Settings:

Please set your phone to record at 1080p HD resolution by following these instructions:

  • iPhone: Please set your iPhone to said resolution via Settings >Camera>Record Video. Pick 1080p HD at 30fps.

  • Android Samsung, Huawei, HTC, etc): This differs per phone, but these settings can mostly be found via the settings menu inside the camera app or via the general settings menu. In this menu locate the video size menu. Best setting for filming is 1080p HD and 25fps.

  • If this option is not available on your phone, please make sure it is not a number below 1080p and/or 25fps or above 50fps.

Stability:

Try to create a stable environment by using a tripod or a chair to lean on.

Sound:

If possible, use an additional microphone. If you do not have one, avoid filming too far away from your sound object or person.

Extra sound and synchronization:

You could also use an extra phone to record the sound but then you have to synchronize both phones using a clap:

  • Start the audio on one phone and the camera on the other. Now synchronize by clapping your hands slowly. Make sure you record and film the hands and sound.

  • Do not stop your phone after this point. If you stop, you will have to sync again.

  • When editing, you can synchronize the clap with the image of the clap and then the sound and image will run at the same speed.

And last but not least, watch the filming tutorial → before you start shooting.

Good luck !

TO CLOSE THIS FILE CLICK AT 'SLUIT' ^

Editor

You functions are:                                           

  • To use the editing of the film to create a complete story. This is where research, interviewing and filming come together. In consultation with the team, scenes or questions can be left out to make the film stronger. 

  • To be bound to the truth. You are not allowed to transform what a guest/main character has said into another story. 

  • To look for suitable music or sounds for the film and make titles if necessary. The researchers will provide these and are responsible for correct spelling.

Responsibilities:

  • Assembly of the complete film.

  • Practice with the assembly tool if necessary.

  • Getting the right laptop/computer for editing from your teacher.

  • Providing music and audio for the entire film.

  • Close consultation with the interviewer and cameraman/woman about choices to be made in the editing (what do you leave out, in what order do you tell your story).


* A good editor will watch the editing tutorial → and read the steps for editing. If time allows, also watch the filming tutorial →

Steps for editing

CLICK HERE to open ⌄

Steps for Editing

Preparation

  • Get a computer or laptop.
  • Download an editing programme and test it out.

  • Look at the instructions.

  • Upload the film material together with the cameraman/woman using the following programmes;

You can edit with the following programs;

Choosing

  • Go through all the material and choose the best parts (together with the interviewer/cameraman-woman).

First draft

  • Make a first draft of your editing and do not hesitate to switch scenes to see if it improves your story.

  • Adopt tips from the tutorial in your editing.

  • Discuss your options with the team.

  • Save!!!! Use your save button as much as you can or use an auto saver that will save your edit every 10 minutes. 

Final draft

  • Finalise your editing.
  • Choose music that is free of copyright restrictions as indicated in the tutorial. (links in tutorial)

  • Add sound effects.

  • Add titles.

Download as MP4

Download your film as an MP4 file and send it to your teacher via email or WeTransfer

TO CLOSE THIS FILE CLICK AT 'SLUIT' ^

Tutorials for documentary making

Specifications for filming on a mobile phone

Settings:

Please set your phone to record at 1080p HD resolution by following these instructions:

  • iPhone: Please set your iPhone to said resolution via Settings >Camera>Record Video. Pick 1080p HD at 30fps.

  • Android Samsung, Huawei, HTC, etc: This differs per phone, but these settings can mostly be found via the settings menu inside the camera app or via the general settings menu. In this menu locate the video size menu. Best setting for filming is 1080p HD and 25fps.

  • If this option is not available on your phone, please make sure it is not a number below 1080p and/or 25fps or above 50fps.

Stability:

Try to create a stable environment by using a tripod or a chair to lean on.

Sound

If possible, use an additional microphone. If you do not have one, avoid filming too far away from your sound object or person.

Extra sound and synchronisation:

You could also use an extra phone to record the sound but then you have to synchronise both phones using a clap:

  • Start the audio on one phone and the camera on the other. Now synchronise by clapping your hands slowly. Make sure you record and film the hands and sound.

  • Do not stop your phone after this point. If you stop, you will have to sync again.

  • When editing, you can synchronise the clap with the image of the clap and then the sound and image will run at the same speed.

And last but not least, watch the filming tutorial before you start shooting.

Good luck !

Assessment grid for the students’ documentaries

Version1 - assessing the documentaries while working on them

 

download

download the assesement as a word doc here

Statement of consent

Statement of consent

If you interview a youngster under the age of 18 you have to make a statement of constent to sign for your parent;

you can download the word doc to print here

Step 4 Part 1 - Exchange and discussion within and with the partner school

download this assesement as a word doc here

Step 4 Part 2 - VPRO questionnaire to assess the project

Please fill in the final questionnaire