How should we respond to gender (in)equality? This is the question young people will try to answer through the short documentary they will create, guided by this interactive education kit.

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Step 1: Introduction
Step 1 Part 1 ▾
Step 1 Part 2 ▾

Step 2: Learning more about the context and topic
Step 2 Part 1 ▾
Step 2 Part 2 ▾
Step 2 Part 3 ▾

Step 3: Research and creation of the documentary
Step 3 Part 1 ▾

Step 4:  Sharing and reflection
Step 4 Part 1 ▾
Step 4 Part 2 ▾

Content focus: Gender Equality
Research Question: How should we respond to gender (in)equality?
End Product: Documentary

Rationale and learning outcomes

The world struggles with the issue of gender equality. The starter clip on #MeToo shows an example of gender inequality: a young woman who was sexually harassed, was not taken seriously when trying to charge the perpetrator. 

For this learning activity, students will make a documentary in which they show an example of gender inequality. In the documentary they will make a proposition on how to deal with gender inequality.

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or separate steps & parts at each step

Learning outcomes:

  • Students acquire knowledge about gender (in)equality in past and present
  • Students learn to recognise gender (in)equality in past and present
  • Students learn to see and evaluate different perspectives
  • Students develop well-considered views on gender (in)equality
  • Students present and explain their proposal with rational arguments
  • Students will make a connection between gender (in)equality in society and in their personal lives

Please note

Please fill out this survey before you start the lessons in class. It helps us to learn from your experiences and to keep upgrading the project.

Ask your students to fill in the student survey before you start the lessons. When you have finished the project we will ask you and your students to fill in the end survey.

Timing

The full lesson plan takes 7-8 hours (homework included).

There are some suggestions in the explanations to pick and choose activities based on the timing and the students' groups.

Assessment

To assess the students’ documentaries, there is an assessment grid with ten items which can also be shared with the students in the beginning of the project. 

This assessment grid has two different versions:

  1. Assessing the documentaries while working on them  and
  2. Assessing the documentaries at the end of the project. 

Version 1 can be used as a checklist by the groups while doing the documentary, version 2 can be used either for co-assessment or for assessment.

In the enquiry and the making of the documentary students will link current affairs to a broader (historical) context. They will experience they can contribute to public debate.

Step 1:

Introduction (50 mins)

Part 1

Presentation of the project and the partner students

Students will watch a video about the project, understand the goals they have to achieve, be introduced to the other school they will work with, and know that they will create a short documentary. This will help them to look for information they can use for their video.

CLICK HERE TO OPEN - Step 1 Part 1 ⌄

introducing the project In Europe

Introduction

The introduction has the objective of introducing the project and motivating students.

Objective

Students will learn about the project, the main objectives and the goals they have to achieve (creating a short documentary about their perspective on certain historical issues).

Preparation and materials

  • Presentation videoclip 
  • Assessment grid (annex 1)
  • Organise the communication with the partner school (Skype, video, email, etc.) 
  • Analyse and if necessary, adapt the assessment criteria to give to students. 

Planning grid

Introduction of the project:

a) Students will watch a video clip that presents the objective of the project   creating a short 10-15 minute documentary and exchanging it with other European schools. This video is the same for all topics. 

If necessary, give more explanation to the students, addressing the objective of the lesson, the steps, timing, characteristics of the video clip students have to create, etc.

b) Set up a brief communication with the partner students, if possible via Skype: 

i. Students from each class should introduce themselves: Hello, this is our class. We are looking forward to this project, we are very excited. I am Michael, I’m 16 years old, Delphine: Hello..." 

ii. If a Skype meeting is not possible, prepare a short presentation video to send them or write an email with the presentation and add a picture of the class. 
- This activity does not have to take longer than 15-20 minutes but has a significant effect on student motivation and the success of the project. 
- If the students’ English level is poor, you can communicate via email, so they have time to prepare the communication and translate the answers. 

c) Explain the assessment criteria to the students.

ANNEX 1 : Assessment grid for the students’ documentaries

1) Version for students while working on the documentary

download

download the assessment as a pdf file here

2) Version for assessing the documentaries at the end of the project

download

download the assessment as a pdf file here

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Part 2: Introducing the topic

Students will watch the starter clip, which is based mainly on a personal way of dealing with gender (in)equality. Students will thereby learn more about the topic and reflect on the research question. This will stimulate their interest in the topic and will help them to start identifying the different strategies for dealing with gender (in)equality.

CLICK HERE TO OPEN - Step 1 Part 2 ⌄

Introducing the topic

Introduction

The introduction has the objective of introducing the project and motivating students. It is crucial that students understand the concept of gender (in)equality as they will research and create a documentary based on it. In this lesson, they will start the process of ‘comprehension’ that will continue in step 2.

Lesson objectives

  • Students will start reflecting on the topic of gender equality by watching a prepared video on #MeToo.
  • Students will better understand and appreciate the difference between gender and sex. 
  • Students will be aware of the personal and societal consequences of unequal treatment between people of different genders. 
  • Students will start thinking about the research question - how should we respond to gender (in)equality - and be aware of the different manifestations of gender inequality. This will stimulate their interest in the topic and it will get them started at identifying the different options for dealing with it.

Preparation

Make sure you have the link to the starter clip ready to show in class.

Description of the lesson

1. Class discussion

  • Discuss and ask students what they think we mean when we talk about gender.
  • Discuss and ask students what they think we mean when we talk about gender (in)equality.

Students should reflect on the following: Is this topic important? What might be the perspective(s) of the different people involved? 

You can help students by providing some examples of gender (in)equality.

2. Introducing the research question

Once students have understood these two terms, introduce the research question: How should we respond to gender (in)equality? 

  • Ask students to individually write down their reflections on the research question. 
  • Watch the starter clip and comment on it as a whole class. If necessary, briefly explain the historical background of the clip and focus on the topic of the question. 

Some possible questions you could ask your students:

  • What is shown in the clip?
  • Who are the people in the clip?
  • What kind of gender (in)equality is shown in the clip?
  • What different kinds of gender (in)equality can you think of?
  • What is your own perspective on this theme?
  • How should we deal with gender (in)equality? 

3. The difference between sex and gender

  • Students (in groups) think about examples of the difference between sex and gender. They make a list of sex differences, and a list of gender differences.
  • Students will answer the question: What are the consequences of sex differences for women, men and others?
  • Students will answer the question: What are the consequences of gender differences for women, men and others? 

Below you can find more information about the distinction between Sex and Gender. 

Note:  At the end of the project, students will come back to the research question and write down reflections on it for a second time, comparing their responses to see if they have modified/developed ideas on the topic. It would be a good idea to take a picture of the ideas written on the blackboard.

Material: Distinction between Sex and Gender

Distinction between sex and gender

The distinction between sex and gender differentiates a person's biological sex (the anatomy of an individual's reproductive system, and secondary sex characteristics) from that person's gender, which can refer to either social roles based on the sex of the person (gender role) or personal identification of one's own gender based on an internal awareness (gender identity). In some circumstances, an individual's assigned sex and gender do not align, and the person may be transgender. In other cases, an individual may have biological sex characteristics that complicate sex assignment, and the person may be intersex. In ordinary speech, sex and gender are often used interchangeably. Some dictionaries and academic disciplines give them different definitions while others do not. Some languages, such as German or Finnish, have no separate words for sex and gender, and the distinction has to be made through context.

(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sex_and_gender_distinction)

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Step 2

Learning more about the context and topic

Part 1 Gender (In)Equality in History

Students discuss gender (in)equality as an all time, worldwide phenomenon, using the fact sheets about gender (in)equality throughout history. 
They will also analyse the timeline of women’s activism and emancipation during the last two centuries to be aware of the consequences and impact of these movements. Students will also learn about historical examples of gender (in)equality and identify different types of gender (in)equality and the consequences these have had throughout history.

CLICK HERE TO OPEN - Step 2 Part 1 ⌄

Gender (In)Equality in History

Introduction

The objective of this part is to teach students more about the history of gender (in)equality in order to better understand the context of the starter clip, and the different ways of dealing with the topic. By studying the topic as a worldwide phenomenon, students will learn to identify instances of gender (in)equality and its consequences in different contexts. At the end of the lesson, students will be asked to discuss examples of solutions and legislation to improve gender (in)equality.

Lesson objectives

  • Students will learn to understand how people have been dealing with gender (in)equality in the past. 
  • Students will have group discussions about gender (in)equality as an all time, worldwide phenomenon, using fact sheets on different types of gender (in)equality throughout history. 
  • Students will draw some conclusions about similarities and differences between these forms of gender (in)equality throughout history.
  • Students will analyse the timeline on women’s activism which includes key moments of women’s emancipation during the last two centuries in order to be aware of the intentions and real actions taken by governments, and of the consequences they have had on the position of women in today’s societies.

Preparation

In these lessons we provide you with a lot of materials. You are free to make choices in the historical assignments; use some texts instead of all or divide the assignments between the students. Choose which of the fact sheets you would like to use for discussion. 
Note: some texts are easier to read than others. If needed, you can use the following student materials for students who struggle with reading English: 

  • Fact Sheet Gender in religion
  • Fact sheet Map of political rights
  • Fact sheet Homophobia: Alan Turing
  • Fact Sheet #MeToo
  • Fact sheet Graphs on inequality in payment
  • Fact sheet Inequality in sports
  • Fact sheet Inequality in the arts

Description of the lesson

1. Introducing the topic on gender (in)equality in recent history

  • Ask students and discuss as a class the following questions:
    - Can you think of examples of gender (in)equality in recent history?
    - How has Europe recently been dealing with gender (in)equality?

2. Class discussion

  • Group discussion of the fact sheet examples (model: expert).
  • Discuss examples of legislation to improve gender (in)equality. 

Material: Factsheets with examples of gender (in)equality

1. Gender in religion

Religions historically played a key part in defining gender roles. Europe’s most important religions - Judaism, Christianity and Islam - are believed to have been founded by men. These religions all have rules and commands related to gender:

  • Segregation of men and women in the synagogue and mosque
  • Separate catholic congregations for men and women
  • Leaders such as rabbis, priests and imams must be men
  • Dress codes, mainly for women
  • Different duties for husbands (leader, protector and supporter of the family) and wives (follower, mother, helper, keeper of the house)
  • Duty to have children for both wife and husband. Therefore, homosexuality is strictly forbidden.

2. Enlightened Women

Mary Wollstonecraft

During the 18th century Enlightenment, intellectuals started to question the authority of religion over society. Some women also joined the discussion. In her A Vindication of the rights of women, English writer Mary Wollstonecraft made an indictment against the authority of men over women. She wrote that women were equal to men in ability. In her view, men accomplished more in society because it was much more difficult for women to get a good education. Once women would be educated as well as men, they would be able to have their own independent lives: “I do not wish them [women] to have power over men; but over themselves.” The publication of A Vindication caused considerable controversy but failed to bring about any immediate reforms.

In 1789, revolutionaries in France drew up the Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen. In it, they demanded political rights and freedoms for men: male men. As a response, Olympe des Gouges, a woman deeply involved in cultural and political debate, wrote the Declaration of Rights for Woman and the Female Citizen (1791). The first article of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen proclaims: "Men are born and remain free and equal in rights. Social distinctions may be based only on common utility." The first article of the Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen responds: "Women are born free and remain equal to men in rights. Social distinctions may only be based on common utility." During the Reign of Terror (1793-1794), Des Gouges was tried and executed for her political writings.

Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen

3. Political Rights

4. Women’s Suffrage in Finland

Women representatives at the Finnish parliament in 1907

In 1884, the Finnish Women’s Association was established. One of their main goals was to secure women’s rights to vote. Initially, the association sparked controversy among other groups of women. Bourgeois women were not convinced that working class women should have a right to vote. Because of this sharp dispute, the women’s vote became a central issue in the political debate. During the General Strike in 1905, Fins decided that a radical solution was needed and the vote for women became one of the strikers’ demands.

In 1905, Finland passed the right to vote and stand for election for both women and men. It thereby became the first nation in Europe to allow women as parliamentary candidates, and the first to adopt universal suffrage. In the following year, women were first elected as members of the Finnish parliament: 19 women were elected out of a total of 200 representatives. (source)

5. Revolution!

The 1917 Bolshevik Revolution in Russia can be considered one of the great egalitarian social experiments of the 20th century and therefore would seem like a good place to look for gender equality.

During the first years after the Revolution, there were a lot of radical ideas about equality and some were put into practice. After 1917, new social insurance laws were passed to ensure women’s equal rights - including the world’s first state-funded maternity leave policy. Additionally, ambitious plans were made in the 1920s for public day care centers, laundries, and cafeterias that would liberate women from the “crushing drudgery” (Lenin’s phrase) of housework and release them into the workforce. Nevertheless, the Soviets left bourgeois family structures and traditional gender roles largely in place, and laws on the books to support women did little to undermine patriarchy.

Lots has been written about the position of women in the Soviet Union, but plans for real equality were sabotaged and suppressed from the start. Bolshevism was a “men’s movement,” and this contributed to its demise. By failing to liberate women from the domestic sphere, the Bolsheviks inadvertently preserved the system they wanted to destroy. For, “women produced children; women and children formed families; and families ‘engendered capitalism and the bourgeoisie continuously, daily, hourly, spontaneously, and on a massive scale.’” (source)

6. Economic, legal and social rights

After World War II, a lot changed for women in Europe. Girls were allowed to the same educational levels as boys, women could stand witness in court, married women were granted their own separate economy and could work in more professions. But there was still a lot of inequality left to fight against.

7. The Second Sex

Simone de Beauvoir

The Second Sex (Le Deuxième Sexe) is a 1949 book by French writer and philosopher Simone de Beauvoir in which she discusses the treatment of women throughout history and in her own time.

“One is not born, but rather becomes, a woman.” This is Beauvoir’s most famous quote. In the book she contrasts a girl’s upbringing with a boy’s, who at age 3 or 4 is told he is a “little man.” A girl is taught to be a woman, and her “feminine” destiny is imposed on her by society.

De Beauvoir asks: “What is woman?” She argues that the man is considered the ‘normal’ human being. In this way, the views of what a woman is, how she should behave or what she should look like, are determined by male standards.

De Beauvoir relates the history of women’s suffrage, and writes that women like Rosa Luxemburg and Marie Curie demonstrate that the idea of women's inferiority to men is false. What these examples also show is that history itself, being mainly written by men, pays little attention to brilliant women. In this way we get the impression that men have always been superior to women.

According to De Beauvoir, while a woman knows how to be as active, creative and effective as a man, her situation keeps her being useful, preparing food, clothes, and lodging. 

De Beauvoir thinks it is pointless to try to decide whether a woman is superior or inferior, and that it is obvious that a man’s situation in society is “infinitely preferable.” She writes: “For a woman there is no other way out than to work for her liberation.”

In her conclusion, De Beauvoir looks forward to a future in which women and men are equals, something the “Soviet revolution promised”, but did not ever deliver.

The first French publication of The Second Sex in 1949 sold around 22,000 copies in a week. It has since been translated into 40 languages. The Vatican placed the book on its list of prohibited books.

The Second Sex is regarded as a major work of feminist philosophy and the starting point of second-wave feminism. (source)

8. Physical autonomy

The second wave of women’s liberation activity in Europe was a feminist movement that started in the 1960s and continued through the 1970s. Its aims were to redesign society by changing the perception of women and their roles in society.

In addition to improvements in working conditions and equal pay, liberationists fought for complete autonomy for women's bodies including the right to make their own decisions regarding contraception and abortion, and more independence in sexuality. The advocates of the movement felt that unfettered access to education jobs and childcare were primary issues.

Women demonstrate in The Hague for equal pay on May 29, 1975

Hunger strike in Ghent in support of abortion rights, 1973

The protests resulted in better legislation for women in European countries.
Contraception became freely available, abortion was legalised, laws on violence and rape in marriage were passed, women could keep their own name after marriage, paternal prevalence over the children was abolished, honour killings and genital mutilation were prohibited. Laws on discrimination because of sex, marital status, pregnancy or sexual orientation were passed. (source)

9. Sexual Harassment: #MeToo

Despite improvements in legislation, not all problems were solved, as we can see in the starter clip about the subject of sexual harassment.

The Me Too (or #MeToo) movement, with a large variety of local and international names, is a movement against sexual harassment and sexual assault. Sexual harassment survivor and activist Tarana Burke initially used the phrase “Me Too” in this context on social media in 2006, on MySpace.

Similar to other social justice and empowerment movements based upon breaking silence, the purpose of “Me Too” is to empower women through empathy and strength in numbers, especially young and vulnerable women, by visibly demonstrating how many women have survived sexual assault and harassment, especially in the workplace.

Following the exposure of the widespread sexual abuse allegations against Harvey Weinstein in early October 2017, the movement began to spread virally as a hashtag on social media. On October 15, 2017, American actress Alyssa Milano posted on Twitter: “If all the women who have been sexually harassed or assaulted wrote 'Me Too' as a status, we might give people a sense of the magnitude of the problem,” saying that she got the idea from a friend. A number of high-profile posts and responses from American celebrities Gwyneth Paltrow, Ashley Judd, Jennifer Lawrence, and Uma Thurman, among others, soon followed. 

After millions of people started using the phrase and hashtag in this manner, it spread to dozens of other languages and countries. 

In her acceptance speech during the Golden Globe festivities, actress Michelle Williams made a strong plea (video) for the right of women to choose freely on any subject. 

In February 2020, Harvey Weinstein was convicted of rape at a New York trial.

10. Homophobia

In Europe, homosexuals have been prosecuted for ages. In most religions, sexuality is centered around reproduction. Therefore, homosexuality has been regarded as not natural, not intended by god and thus forbidden.

The case of Alan Turing

Alan Turing was a world famous mathematician and computer scientist. During World War II, he played a major role in deciphering the German Enigma code-messages, and thus helped shorten the war considerably. In 1952, Turing was persecuted for homosexual acts, which were a criminal offense in the U.K. at the time. Turing was found guilty and convicted to be chemically castrated. Turing died in 1954, probably because of suicide. 

In 2009, prime minister Gordon Brown made an official apology for the way Turing was treated, and in 2013, Queen Elizabeth posthumously pardoned Alan Turing. In 2014, the movie The Imitation Game, based on Turing’s life, was released.

11. Legislative action for equal rights for homosexuals in The Netherlands

As early as the mid-1980s, a group of gay rights activists, headed by Henk Krol – then editor-in-chief of the Gay Krant – asked the Dutch government to allow same-sex couples to marry. Parliament decided in 1995 to create a special commission, which was assigned to investigate the possibility of same-sex marriage. At that moment, Christian democrats were not part of the ruling coalition for the first time since the introduction of full democracy. The special commission finished its work in 1997 and concluded that civil marriage should be extended to include same-sex couples. After the election of 1998, the government promised to tackle the issue. In September 2000, the final legislation draft was debated in the Dutch Parliament.

The marriage bill passed the House of Representatives by 109 votes to 33 on 12 September 2000. Same-sex marriage in the Netherlands has been legal since 1 April 2001. The Netherlands was the first country in the world to legalise same-sex marriage.

12. Laws regarding same-sex partnerships in Europe

(source)

13. Femicide...

...is a sex-based hate crime term, broadly defined as “the intentional killing of females (women or girls) because they are females.”

In France and Spain more than 100 women are killed each year for being a woman. Mostly by an (ex-)partner, sometimes by other men or family members. Despite legislation against gender related violence, since 2004, 796 women were killed in Spain, and even more in France. Both countries know a strong macho-culture that too often prompts men to use violence against women.

On March 8, 2020, on International Women’s Day, huge marches of protesters against femicide were organized in several European cities. The French and Spanish governments are preparing laws to ban sex related violence. An important part of such legislation is about the principle of mutual consent: you can only have sex if both partners agree. With this new law, the Spanish government shows its ambition to set a new European standard in fighting femicide and sexual harassment.

Student Material: Women of the world, unite!

Extra Fact Sheet: Distinction between Sex and Gender

Distinction between sex and gender

The distinction between sex and gender differentiates a person's biological sex (the anatomy of an individual's reproductive system, and secondary sex characteristics) from that person's gender, which can refer to either social roles based on the sex of the person (gender role) or personal identification of one's own gender based on an internal awareness (gender identity). In some circumstances, an individual's assigned sex and gender do not align, and the person may be transgender. In other cases, an individual may have biological sex characteristics that complicate sex assignment, and the person may be intersex. In ordinary speech, sex and gender are often used interchangeably. Some dictionaries and academic disciplines give them different definitions while others do not. Some languages, such as German or Finnish, have no separate words for sex and gender, and the distinction has to be made through context.

(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sex_and_gender_distinction)

TO CLOSE THIS FILE CLICK AT 'CLOSE' ^

Part 2: What are the Different Perspectives?

Students will analyse and make inferences about how different people deal with and experience gender (in)equality. This will help them draw conclusions about their perspectives on fighting against it. It will increase their understanding of the different ways in which gender (in)equality is viewed, and deepen their knowledge on the variety of options for dealing with the issue.

CLICK HERE TO OPEN - Step 2 Part 2 ⌄

What are the Different Perspectives?

Introduction

This part has the objective of learning students to understand the different perspectives on the topic of gender (in)equality. Through analysing different experiences of and perspectives on gender (in)equality, students will learn to form their own views and conclusions regarding the topic. 

Lesson objective

  • Students will be able to recognise different perspectives on the topic and understand that there is no consensus on the issue. 
  • Students will analyse and make inferences about how different people deal with or have experienced gender (in)equality, in order to draw conclusions about their own perspectives.
  • Students will experience that exploring different perspectives, gathering more facts and analysing those, is basic to the development of a well-considered personal view.
  • Students will brainstorm to find possible answers to the research question.

Preparation

Make sure to have the grid for students at hand, and form groups for discussion. Feel free to pick and choose or divide the materials between the students.

Description of the lesson

Discussion

  • Students will work in groups and discuss the different perspectives.
  • Each group closes with the question: How do you feel about gender (in)equality? Answer it in connection to the infographic about young people’s preference for a future relationship with traditional role models.

Teacher Material: Perspectives on Gender (In)Equality

Perspectives on Gender (In)Equality

We have seen examples of how people coped with gender inequality and tried to take measures to end it. Nowadays, most countries maintain judicial gender equality: laws apply to both men and women. However, legal equality does not mean that women and men have equal chances or positions in society. Inequality that has existed for centuries, cannot easily be undone. 

When we look at modern society, we still see more men than women in powerful and influential positions. This is a hurdle for girls and women to overcome in order to reach real social equality. In everyday life, in most European countries, women have less power, less money, and a lesser social status than men. Because of this gap, it is harder for women than for men to develop their careers. Real equality is hindered by a difference in power, and also by stereotypical ideas of what men and women should be like.

Below we give some examples in which girls and women struggle to break through the glass ceiling in different fields of society. We also show some examples of the more recent struggle of members of the LGBTQ+ community to reach an equal social position.

14. #MeToo

In a 2007 television interview, French journalist Tristane Banon announced that she was sexually harassed by Dominique Strauss Kahn in 2002. She did report the incident to the police. She and her lawyer were told to keep quiet. 

It was a common reaction among the elite: everybody knew about the sexual harassment that was going on, but nobody protested. It was just ‘one of those things’, you know. It was better not talk about it. Men were covering up for each other.

A year after the foundation of Me Too, Banon was one of the first women in France to expose male misconduct out into the open.

Dominique Strauss Kahn was later prosecuted for the sexual harassment of Nafissatou Diallo, a 33-year-old former housekeeper at a hotel in Manhattan. She says Strauss-Kahn attacked her on 14 May 2011 as she attempted to clean his room. Diallo alleges that Strauss-Kahn ran at her naked, molested her and forced her to have sex. The claims led to a criminal investigation against the IMF boss that same year, and to his house arrest in Manhattan.

Both cases are examples of the types of sexual harassment that the #MeToo movement tries to fight.

15. A Different View on #MeToo

Shortly after Hollywood offered a show of support for the #MeToo movement on the Golden Globes red carpet and stage, a famous actress on the other side of the Atlantic lent her name to a public letter denouncing the movement, as well as its French counterpart, #Balancetonporc, or “Expose Your Pig.” Actress Catherine Deneuve joined more than 100 other French women in entertainment, publishing and academic fields in the pages of the newspaper Le Monde. They argued that the two movements, in which women and men have used social media as a forum to describe sexual misconduct, had gone too far by publicly prosecuting private experiences and had created a totalitarian climate. “Rape is a crime. But insistent or clumsy flirting is not a crime, nor is gallantry a chauvinist aggression,” the letter begins. 

“As a result of the Weinstein affair, there has been a legitimate realization of the sexual violence women experience, particularly in the workplace, where some men abuse their power. It was necessary. But now this liberation of speech has been turned on its head.” They contend that the #MeToo movement has led to a campaign of public accusations that have placed undeserving people in the same category as sex offenders without giving them a chance to defend themselves. “This expedited justice already has its victims, men prevented from practicing their profession as punishment, forced to resign, etc., while the only thing they did wrong was touching a knee, trying to steal a kiss, or speaking about ‘intimate’ things at a work dinner, or sending messages with sexual connotations to a woman whose feelings were not mutual,” they write.

(source: The New York Times, January 9, 2018)

16. Men and #MeToo

Ted Bunch

Ted Bunch

1in6 is a Los Angeles-based non-profit group that supports male sex abuse survivors. The group's development and communications director Meredith Alling told the BBC that #MeToo had a rapid, measurable impact on the number of men reaching out to them when the hashtag first went viral. “We saw a 110% increase in web traffic and a 103% increase in the use of our online helpline service between September and October 2017, and the trend has continued,” she said. In the US, employers are considering how best to create a positive workplace culture in the wake of #MeToo. 

Ted Bunch is the co-founder of A Call To Men: a social activism group that promotes healthy, respectful ways of “being a man”. Bunch says the group has noticed an increase in enquiries. “Most notably, we have seen an increase in corporations seeking to understand why sexual harassment in the workplace is so pervasive,” he explains. Bunch believes problems can arise because the workplace is a microcosm of society, in which men and boys are sometimes taught to view women as objects, and of less value than men. “Most men are not abusive”, he says, “but nearly all men have laughed at a sexist joke or objectified a woman in some way. Once you connect the dots and show men how the jokes they see as harmless actually validate and fuel more harmful behavior, they are quick to change.”
(source)

17. Opinions on Gender Equality

18. Inequality in Healthcare

Until 1990, it was common for health studies to be carried out almost exclusively on men. The result is that doctors and scientists know much less about women’s bodies, women’s illnesses and women’s reactions to drugs than about men’s health issues. The reason for the focus on men is that it is difficult to include pregnant women in a trial. Another reason that is often provided is that women have fluctuating hormone levels. “It is much cheaper to study one sex,” is a comment given by a male scientist (Angela Saini: Inferior. 2017, p. 58). The tendency to focus on males, researchers now realise, may have harmed women’s health. Heart attacks for instance, show themselves differently in women than in men. Therefore they are often not easily recognised, and women die or suffer more than men would. 

In the Netherlands, Hella de Jonge, a female documentary maker and expert suffering from heart failure herself, started the Female Heart Foundation. Watch the documentary (English subtitled):

https://helladejonge.nl/oeuvre/the-female-heart-en

Starting in 2016, the USA and EU implemented laws that require equal inclusion of women in medical research and trials.

19. Inequality in Corona Times

“Health professionals, experts and unions say poorly fitting equipment is risking the lives of female workers.”

Some talk of abrasions on their faces caused by having to pull masks too tightly, others talk about having to roll up the sleeves of their fluid-repellent gowns. Some have been left barely able to see, while others have used tape to seal gaps around their jawline. The thing they all have in common? They are trying to save lives – and they are women.

NHS professional bodies, experts and trade unions have warned that female healthcare workers’ lives are being put at risk because personal protective equipment is designed for men. As one frontline NHS worker put it: “PPE is designed for a 6 foot 3 inch bloke built like a rugby player.” Dr. Helen Fidler, the deputy chair of the British Medical Association (BMA) UK consultants committee, says: “Women’s lives are absolutely being put at risk because of ill-fitting PPE. We know that properly fitted PPE works, but masks are designed for a male template, with the irony being that 75% of workers in the NHS are female.”

 Caroline Criado-Perez, whose book Invisible Women addresses the issue of ill-fitting PPE for women in one of its chapters, said she has been inundated with messages from healthcare workers who could not find protective equipment to fit them. “Respiratory protective equipment is designed for a male face, and if it doesn’t fit, it won’t protect,” she explains. 

One intensive care nurse revealed that half of the women in her unit had failed the fit test – a rigorous process which ensures that health workers wear the right size mask, which does not leak – on both of the FFP3 masks available. “The only men I know of that have failed are either very small, or ones that refuse to shave their beards so don’t get a tight fit. Sexism is very much present here,” she says.

(source: The Guardian, 24 April 2020)

20. Inequality in Science and Education

One of the reasons why women’s health is less investigated is the predominance of men in science. Only recently it was not considered appropriate for girls to take up studies like engineering, microbiology or maths. And when they did, they were seen as very strange.

Ass Angela Saini, a well-known English science journalist writes: “If you were the geek growing up, you’ll recognize how lonely it can be. If you were the female geek, you’ll know it’s far lonelier. By time I reached sixth form, I was the only girl in my chemistry class of eight students. I was the only girl in my mathematics class of about a dozen. And when I decided to study engineering a couple of years later, I found myself the only woman in a class of nine at university.” (Saini 2017, p 1-2) 

UNESCO estimated that in 2013, just a little more than a quarter of all researchers in the world were women.

Women are underrepresented in modern science because, for most of history, they have been treated as intellectual inferiors. But this is not the only difficulty women have to overcome. There is always the care of children and the household tasks that burden women more than men.

And there is a difference in fields that male and female students choose to study:

21. What Lies Behind Gender Inequality in Education?

While PISA reveals large gender differences in reading, in favour of 15-year-old girls, the gap is narrower when digital reading skills are tested. Indeed, the Survey of Adult Skills suggests that there are no significant gender differences in digital literacy proficiency among 16 to 29-year-olds. 

  • Boys are more likely to underachieve when they attend schools with a large proportion of socio-economically disadvantaged students.

  • Girls - even high-achieving girls - tend to underachieve compared to boys when they are asked to think like scientists, such as when they are asked to formulate situations mathematically or interpret phenomena scientifically. 

  • Parents are more likely to expect their sons, rather than their daughters to work in a science, technology, engineering or mathematics field - even when their 15-year-old boys and girls perform at the same level in mathematics. 

(source: PISA in Focus)

22. Inequality in Payment

Recently, women have made a big jump in participating in the professional workforce. But sadly, lots of women still get paid less than men doing the same job.

23. Compare this to:

24. Inequality in Sports

Nowadays, women try to fight for equal pay, for instance in sports, where Serena Williams successfully protested against inequality in pay in top tennis. However, a lot of female top athletes are still earning less than their male counterparts:

Gender stereotyping is a process in which children’s biological sex determines the activities that they do or do not engage in, as well as the manner in which they are treated in these activities. Sports are generally considered a masculine domain, and this stereotype results in boys’ perceived greater ability and attaching greater importance to sport than girls. This contributes to the gender differences observed in sport. The following statements are some specific examples of gender stereotyping:

1. Females have not been as encouraged by parents to be physically active. 
2. Females are less apt to be taught and to engage in fundamental motor skills during sensitive periods.
3. Female athletes are constantly sexualised by the media.
4. Boys who are not physically skilled or good athletes experience ridicule and embarrassment, based on the rigid male stereotypes that include strength, muscularity, athleticism, and lack of empathy for other participants.

(source

Why is Media Coverage Important?

25. More Inequality in Sports: LGBTQ+ (Martina Navratilova)

Athletes of all ages report harmful gender stereotypes that are destructive to both females and males in sport. The use of derogatory terms such as tomboy, dyke, and fag indicates that a big part of gender stereotyping is the result of homophobia, which is an irrational fear or intolerance of gay, lesbian, and bisexual people.

Martina Navratilova is a Czechoslovak-born American former professional tennis player and coach. She is considered to be one of the best female tennis players of all time.

In 1981, shortly after becoming a United States citizen, Navratilova gave an interview, coming out as bisexual and revealing that she had a sexual relationship with a woman but asked the journalist not to publish the article until she was ready to come out publicly. However, the New York Daily News published the article on July 30, 1981. 

On September 6, 2014, Navratilova proposed to her long time girlfriend Julia Lemigova at the US Open. They got married in New York on December 15, 2014. 

In the past, Navratilova has been critical of allowing trans women to compete in women’s sports, unless it happened in a “fair” manner. In an April 2019 article for The Washington Post, she opinioned that the Equality Act, in its current form, “would make it unlawful to differentiate among girls and women in sports on the basis of sex for any purpose.”

In June 2019, the BBC broadcasted “The Trans Women Athlete Dispute with Martina Navratilova”, where she interviewed people including trans women athletes and sports researchers, presenting evidence on both sides of the debate of whether trans women have any advantage in elite sports. Her closing remarks were: “The way I started this journey, I just wanted to see if there are any big surprises, any misconceptions that I had. And what I think I have come to realize, the biggest thing for me, is just that the level of difficulty that trans people go through cannot be underestimated. The fight for equality and recognition is just huge. That being said, still, for me, the most important thing in sports... And you have to remember, trans rights and elite sports are two different things, although of course they are connected. What’s the right way to set rules so that everybody feels like they have a fighting chance? It feels to me that it is impossible to come to any real conclusions or write any meaningful rules until more research is done.”

“But for now, I think we need to include as many transgender athletes as possible within elite sports, while keeping it as level a playing field as possible. Look, society has changed so much. Things evolve, things change and maybe I need to evolve, I need to change. The rules certainly need to evolve. If you don’t adapt, you’ve got problems. And so we’ll just keep adapting and try to find a happy way forward.”

26. Inequality in the Arts

Inequality in pay also exists in the art world.

27. The Cannes protest

Dozens of women film stars have held a protest at the Cannes Film Festival 2018 against gender-based discrimination in the industry. Cate Blanchett, Kristen Stewart and Salma Hayek were among those taking part in the red-carpet demonstration.

The prestigious Cannes festival has come under criticism for failing to showcase more films by women directors. The protest comes after a period of turmoil in the industry following allegations of sexual harassment. This is the first Cannes festival since allegations of sexual abuse were first made against producer Harvey Weinstein last year. He has always denied engaging in non-consensual sex. 

The actresses and filmmakers linked arms to stroll along the red carpet. Cate Blanchett spoke of the film industry's gender inequalities. “We are 82 women, representing the number of female directors who have climbed these stairs since the first edition of the Cannes Film Festival in 1946. In the same period, 1,688 male directors have climbed these very same stairs,” the two-time Oscar winner said. 

“The prestigious Palme d'Or has been bestowed upon 71 male directors, too numerous to mention by name, but only two female directors,” Ms Blanchett remarked.

(source: BBC News)

28. Gender proportions on festivals

29. LGBTQ+ Inequality

The Polish community of Niedrzwica Duza pronounced itself an LGBTQ+ free zone. The community council voted for a resolution to stop the terror of homosexuality. Conservatives emphasize that they don’t want to forbid homosexuality: “We never discriminate because of a person’s sexual orientation”, says the lawyer of Ordo Iuris, a religious organisation. As long as homosexuals don’t express their feelings or ask to be married, have pride-marches or go to schools to teach about homosexuality. “It is important that children aren’t exposed to such parades”, the mayor says. Persons with the same sex can’t get married. It is as if we would give a driver’s license to the blind.” He calls the resolution a precaution against the western sexual revolution. “This ideology aggressively knocks on our door, to tell us how to live our lives. Ours is a democratic resolution, voted for by a majority: we do not allow ourselves to impose the values of a minority.”

(source: NRC, April 24, 2020)

Nikkie de Jager from the Netherlands is currently one of the most popular social media influencers. On her YouTube channel, Nikkietutorials, she talks about lifestyle and make up issues. 

In 2019, Nikkie posted a video with a very different subject. Nikkie told her followers she had been blackmailed. Therefore, she decided to come out of the closet. The blackmailer wanted money or otherwise threatened to expose Nikkie as a transgender. Nikkie decided to share her secret in a special video on her channel. Nikkie’s coming out video went viral and motivated a lot of transgenders worldwide not to be ashamed anymore.

See: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QOOw2E_qAsE

LGBTQ+ rights in Europe: some countries are “Moving Backwards on Equality for First Time in a Decade”

30. Women's rights since the fall of communism

Inequality in Soviet Times

From the book review of The House of Government: A saga of the Russian Revolution by Yuri Slezkine (2017):

“On a recent research trip to Tbilisi, I stayed with a retired math professor and master storyteller named Tsiala in the communal apartment she’d remade into an elegant B&B for foreigners on the city’s main drag. Evenings over tea, she told me stories about her life in Soviet Georgia. The one I remember best was about her pregnancy with twins in the early 1970s. Certain she’d lose her job at the university if she took maternity leave, she decided to hide the pregnancy. She bought a long fur coat and wore it whenever she left the house. Heavily pregnant by summer, she looked ridiculous in the coat and thought she might die in the 90-degree heat of the outdoor fruit market. Still, in late August, she managed to give birth to two girls and return to work four days later, leaving the infants in the care of a nanny, as though nothing big had happened.”

(source)

How do you feel?

Close the discussion in each group with the question: How do you feel about gender (in)equality? Answer it in connection to the infographic about young people’s preference for a future relationship with traditional role models (see below).

31. Young adults and family roles

Student Material: Worksheet Perspectives on Gender (In)Equality

TO CLOSE THIS FILE CLICK AT 'CLOSE' ^

Part 3: Choosing the topic of the documentary

Students will choose the topic for their documentary, based on their own inspiration, the information and knowledge they have gained and the different perspectives on gender (in)equality they have studied.

CLICK HERE TO OPEN - Step 2 Part 3 ⌄

Introduction

This part will encourage students to investigate different parts of the problem concerning gender (in)equality and to make a proposal to improve the situation. During this part, students will choose the topic of the documentary they will create, taking ideas from the starter clip, the different perspectives and examples of gender (in)equality provided to them.

Lesson objective

  • Students will be able to feel individually involved and directly participating in this issue.

Preparation

Divide the students into groups of 4-6.

Materials

  • Tutorials

Description of the lesson

  1. Ask students to choose one of the following aspects to investigate regarding gender (in)equality:

  • Legislation

  • Awareness/public opinion

  • How to better the personal situation of people suffering from gender inequality?

  • Consequences of gender (in)equality for young people

  • Consequences of gender (in)equality for society in your country

  • Acceptance of LGBTQ+ people

  • Image of women, LGBTQ+ people in media 

  • ...

2. Ask students to think of a main character they would prefer to interview:

  • Girl/woman/LGBTQ+

  • Boy/man/LGBTQ+

  • Feminist/activist

  • Scientist

  • Politician

  • Religious person

  • Someone with a personal experience of gender inequality

  • … 

Make sure that each group has chosen the topic for the documentary by the end of this part, so that they can start doing research in the next step. 

 

TO CLOSE THIS FILE CLICK AT 'CLOSE' ^

Step 3:

Research and creation of the documentary (200 minutes, mostly homework)

Part 1:

Research and creation of the documentary based on examples of local history

During this step students will learn how to create a historical documentary in groups, after researching the topic in their own environment.

Students will learn how to make a documentary, research the topic in their environment and create the historical documentary in groups of 4-6 students. This is the central step of the project as students will create the documentary on it.

Uploading

Once students have finished, teachers will upload their videos by following the steps in the uploading tutorial, then contact the partner school and share the links to students’ videos. Share the link with VPRO as indicated in the tutorial.

Tutorial for how to upload can be found here →

and use the written manual while uploading →

By following the tutorial uploading step by step, it will be easy for you to upload your films to the VPRO Youtube playlist. Here you can find all the films made by students from all over Europe that have participated in this project. Take a look at our Migration playlist →

Once you have uploaded your films YouTube will give you a unique link for each video. Send these links to: ineuropeschools@vpro.nl

Before you start uploading the films do not forget to check if all footage used from third parties are free of rights and ready to use. You do not want to risk a claim.

And remember that this project is not a contest, all films made by your students are welcome in our Playlist.

 

NEW EXTRA @Home Tutorial

Due to the Covid19 measures students and teachers found it hard to finish their documentaries. It seemed impossible to make a short documentary if you cannot go to school or even leave your house.

The good news:  It is possible and we will help you out!

The makers of VPRO television made an extra tutorial with all sorts of tips and tricks explaining how to interview, film and edit if you have to stay at home. We hope this will inspire you.

The tutorial is an extra gesture on top of our tutorials on research, interviewing, filming and editing. We will refer to them so make sure your students saw those first before they start their assignments in step 3.

Take a look →

copyright notice

The participating schools will ensure that any footage of third parties and/or music in the clip is cleared. This means that the participating schools must have permission of the original copyright owners and/or the participating schools will use footage and/or music that are free to use (like royalty free stock music). We strongly advise you not to use any copyrighted material without any permission of the copyright owner(s). This also applies to any material of the VPRO (like photos, logos, audio, video etc).  

If the participating schools are using a copyrighted work (for example, music or archive footage) without permission, the participating schools may be infringing the owners’ rights to that work. The participating schools are aware that they will be fully responsible for any claims in that regard. VPRO cannot be held accountable for any claims of third parties. For more information, see tutorials research, editing and uploading. Click here for more information about uploading and copyright on YouTube.

CLICK HERE TO OPEN - Step 3 Part 1 ⌄

Research and creation of the documentary

Introduction

During this step students will create a historical documentary in groups, after researching the topic in their own environment.

Lesson Objective

  • To learn how to create a documentary 

  • To make a documentary of 10 minutes in groups of 4 to 6 students after being assigned different roles

Preparation and materials

  • Groups of 4-6 students

  • Tutorials for documentary

  • Steps for each function (annex 2). The steps follow the information given in the tutorials and as they are connected to certain roles, the information is also linked in the role cards.  

    • Researching  

    • Interviewing 

    • Filming 

    • Editing 

  • Assessment grid for the documentary (annex 3). 

  • Statement of consent (annex 4)

  • Specifications for filming on mobile phones (annex 5)

  • Make copies of the roles and their functions. All the students will be researchers so make copies for each of them. The other functions will be assigned to one/two students in each group depending on the number of students. 

  • Give the assessment grid to the students before starting the creation of the documentary in case you want to use it as a frame for assessing the students.

  • As the teacher, watch all the tutorials in advance so that you know what the students are going to be doing and understand how the various functions fit together. The tutorial upload and refind is specific for teachers to upload to the European server.

Planning grid

  1. Introduction 

    1. Tell students they will create the documentary in groups of 4-6 and that  they will have different roles whilst creating it. There are four roles:

      1. Researcher: done by the whole group. Research is a key part of making a documentary. Make sure your teams have 2 researchers to keep working on this research, finding background information and the right materials during the process.

      2. Interviewer: in charge of preparing the questions and doing the interview.

      3. Cameraman/woman: will record the interview and images needed.

      4. Editor: will edit the film with the help of his/her colleagues.

  2. Organising roles and watching tutorials 

    1. Divide the roles among the groups or let the students choose a role and give them their role cards. For groups of 6, some functions can be duplicated.

    2. Give each student his/her role card. Ask them to carefully read their role cards and watch the tutorials. As the research will be done by all the students, you can watch this tutorial as a class. The other tutorials can be watched individually as homework

  3. Researching 

    1. Students will do the main part of the research on the topic in class. Before starting, remind them that they started finding a local example in Step 2 Part 2 in the conclusion of the lesson and their homework. Be sure all the groups have a topic/subtopic to start the research. 

    2. It may be difficult for students to identify an appropriate person to interview in their own environment. Tell the students that this person does not have to be someone who has direct experience, but can also be someone who is an expert, or whose family experienced the topic students are researching. This increases the range of topics that can be addressed. 

    3. Explain students that the videos have to be in English, because otherwise, your partner school will not be able to watch your videos in the last exchange lesson. 

If the interview partner is not able (or willing) to do the interview in English, they can do the interview in any other language but then they would have to add English subtitles to their video for the interview parts. The tutorial upload explains how to add subtitles after editing

    1. The last step of the research is to plan the creation of the movie. Let students do it themselves based on the information provided in their role/steps documents, but check the planning as they will do the following activities out of school. 

  1. Out of school activities 

    1. Students will do the interviewing/filming and editing out of school. 

    2. During the filming phase, organise an opportunity for the students to have contact with you for questions and support (mail contact, a walk-in consultation hour, etc.).

    3. Remind students that, as it appears in the interview/filming tutorial, they have to ask for the written permission of the people they interview. In the case your students interview a person under 18, they have to ask for written permission from their parent via the Quitclaim or statement of constent (annex 4).

  2. Uploading

    1. As a teacher, watch the tutorial Upload and refind The tutorial will lead you through the uploading process step by step.

    2. Make sure the uploading is done at least one day before the meeting with your partner class. 

    3. Allocate 10 minutes of uploading time for 1 video, depending on the speed of your internet. For a whole class with low speed internet this could take up an hour and a half.

Annex 1 : Role Cards

Annex 2: Steps for Each Function

Researching (role for the whole group)

Brainstorm and look for sources

  • First, brainstorm together on how you would like to approach this question so that you can specifically search for the resources you need. What do you want to investigate? Who would answer this question best and where would you find stories about this question?

  • Use different research methods and read different sources as recommended in the tutorial.

  • Write down the sources you use and the information they provide.

  • Make sure you check your sources. Ask yourself; are they reliable?

MInd map

  • Create a profile of the person you would like to interview.

    • What are you actually looking for? What kind of profile does this person have and from what perspective do you want to highlight the theme? From what perspective do you want to tell your story?

  • Compare your mind map with the sources and people you have found and make a choice.

 Content summary and plan of action.

  • Write a short summary of the research. Include checks and balances as explained in the tutorial.

  • Write a plan of action as indicated in the tutorial

  • Keep in close contact with the interviewer at this stage. He or she will formulate his or her questions based on your data.

Personal contact (do this together with the interviewer)

  • Get in contact with your main character(s).

  • In order to determine whether your main character is really the right person for your film, personal contact is very important. 

  • Set a date for the interview.

  • Check the specific names and titles of your main characters.

Photos

  • If you search for photos, make sure they are free of copyright restrictions as indicated in the tutorial.

Planning

  • Meet with your group to plan out the time you have to make the movie.

    • How much time do you need to spend on research? 

    • When will you conduct the interviews? 

    • How long do you want to take to edit?

  • Make appointments with your main characters and ask permission to film at certain locations.

Researcher

Researcher

Your functions are:                                                          

  • To investigate the subject of the film on the basis of the central enquiry question. 

  • To search for stories, main persons, archive material (photographs and films that can be used freely) and historical background articles.

  • To check whether the stories are really true. Collect the names and details of the main characters and make the first contact for an interview.

Responsibilities:

NB: in this project, the research is carried out by the entire group.

  • Those who choose the position of researcher are specifically responsible for checking the sources and data (finding out the truth) and for making agreements with the guests/main persons. 

  • During the recording, the researcher provides content support to the interviewer.

  • The researchers make a list of names and functions for the titles in the editing.

*Watch the research tutorial → with your group for more details and read through the steps for researching below

Steps for ressearching

Brainstorm and look for sources

  • First, brainstorm together on how you would like to approach this question so that you can specifically search for the resources you need. What do you want to investigate? Who would answer this question best and where would you find stories about this question?

  • Use different research methods and read different sources as recommended in the tutorial.

  • Write down the sources you use and the information they provide.

  • Make sure you check your sources. Ask yourself, are they reliable?

Mind map

  • Create a profile of the person you would like to interview.

    • What are you actually looking for? What kind of profile does this person have and from what perspective do you want to highlight the theme? From what perspective do you want to tell your story?

  • Compare your mind map with the sources and people you have found and make a choice.

Content summary and plan of action

  • Write a short summary of the research. Include checks and balances as explained in the tutorial.

  • Write a plan of action as indicated in the tutorial

  • Keep in close contact with the interviewer at this stage. He or she will formulate his or her questions based on your data.

Personal contact (do this together with the interviewer)

  • Get in contact with your main character(s).

  • In order to determine whether your main character is really the right person for your film, personal contact is very important. 

  • Set a date for the interview.

  • Check the specific names and titles of your main characters.

Photos

  • If you search for photos, make sure they are free of copyright restrictions as indicated in the tutorial.

Planning

  • Meet with your group to plan out the time you have to make the movie.

    • How much time do you need to spend on research? 

    • When will you conduct the interviews? 

    • How long do you want to take to edit?

  • Make appointments with your main characters and ask permission to film at certain locations.

Interviewer

Interviewer

Your functions are:                                              

  • To ask the guest or main character the interview questions. 

  • To  prepare the interview/questionnaire on the basis of the researcher's information.

  • In consultation with the group, to choose a form of interview that suits the type of documentary chosen. (see tutorial). 

  • To maintain close contact with the cameraman/woman and the editor.

  • To speak to the guest in advance and tell the camera and editor what the interview is about.

Responsibilities:

  • Making a questionnaire that fits in with the research.

  • Responsible for good contact with the guest.

  • Responsible for good cooperation with the cameraman.

  • After the editing, inform the guests about which parts of the interview are in the film.

*A good interviewer will watch the interviewing tutorial → and read the steps for interviewing → He/she will also share main findings with the group.

Steps for interviewing

Preparing the interview

Personal contact (do this together with the researcher)

  • Get in contact with your main character(s). In order to determine whether your main character is really the right person for your film, personal contact is very important.
  • Set a date for the interview.

Choose your way of interviewing

  • Choose the style of interviewing as pointed out in the tutorial: 

    • Are you going to be in it as our guide through the whole story or are you the invisible interviewer and will the story tell itself?

  • Write down your questions based on the research.

Planning the filming with the cameraman/woman

  • Where does the interview take place? Inform your cameraman/woman of the circumstances.

  • What do you need to see in order to tell your whole story? 

  • Plan the scenes you need to complete your interview with the cameraman/woman.

Interview

  • During the interview make sure to ask all the questions you need.

  • Check with your cameraman/woman if both sound and video are appropriate. (annex 4 shows the form you can use)

  • Ask for specific names and titles.

  • Be polite / be specific / be complete / be kind.

  • Get permission from your main character to show this interview on social media.

  • Get permission from parents through a quit claim ▾  if your main character is under 18.

Cameraman/woman

Cameraman/woman

Your functions are :                                             

  • To shoot all the footage for the film. Not only the interview, but also all the images needed to make a good film and build a logical story. 

  • To think about the locations for filming and the actions to be filmed.

  • to consult with the interviewer beforehand so that she/he can determine what and where to film on the basis of the content of the questions. 

  • To keep in close contact with the editor to ensure that there are enough images for editing with enough variation. 

  • To make sure that there is enough light to play with, check that all scenes are properly captured in image and sound.

  • If necessary, to ask a question again or redo a recording. 

Responsibilities:

  • Filming of all images for the film, both interview and environmental shots.

  • Practise filming according to the tutorial if you need it.

  • Provide the right phone with a charged battery and power bank for recording (possibly via your teacher)

  • Responsible for light when filming indoors.

  • Responsible for good sound.

  • Responsible for good cooperation with the interviewer.

  • Responsible for close cooperation with the editor.

* A good cameraman will watch the filming tutorial → and read the steps for filming → . If time allows, also watch the editing tutorial →

Steps for filming

Preparing your materials

  • Make sure you have a charged cell phone with a good camera/extra battery pack/sound.

  • If you are filming in a house or building look for lights if you need them (see tutorial).

Preparing the filming

  • Clarify your understanding:
    • Who is the main character? 
    • What story are we going to tell and what do we need to see?

    • What actions by the main character will add to the story?

    • Where is the best place to tell this story? (her work, his house, their broken down flat , etc.)

    • Make a list of all the scenes you need.

Filming

  • Film horizontally!

  • Reference the technical aspects on the sheet: specifications for filming on mobile phone (annex 4)

  • Use some MS, wide and close up angles during the interview. (see tutorial)

  • Make extra shots of the interviewer listening for the editing.

  • Make extra shots of the main character listening.

  • Use extra tips from the tutorial in improving your filming.

Download your material

  • Bring your material directly to the editor and download together.

Specifications for filming on a mobile phone

VPRO In Europe Schools

Specifications for filming on a mobile phone

Settings:

Please set your phone to record at 1080p HD resolution by following these instructions:

  • iPhone: Please set your iPhone to said resolution via Settings >Camera>Record Video. Pick 1080p HD at 30fps.

  • Android Samsung, Huawei, HTC, etc): This differs per phone, but these settings can mostly be found via the settings menu inside the camera app or via the general settings menu. In this menu locate the video size menu. Best setting for filming is 1080p HD and 25fps.

  • If this option is not available on your phone, please make sure it is not a number below 1080p and/or 25fps or above 50fps.

Stability:

Try to create a stable environment by using a tripod or a chair to lean on.

Sound:

If possible, use an additional microphone. If you do not have one, avoid filming too far away from your sound object or person.

Extra sound and synchronisation:

You could also use an extra phone to record the sound but then you have to synchronise both phones using a clap:

  • Start the audio on one phone and the camera on the other. Now synchronise by clapping your hands slowly. Make sure you record and film the hands and sound.

  • Do not stop your phone after this point. If you stop, you will have to sync again.

  • When editing, you can synchronise the clap with the image of the clap and then the sound and image will run at the same speed.

And last but not least, watch the filming tutorial → before you start shooting.

Good luck !

Editor

Editor

You functions are:                                           

  • To use the editing of the film to create a complete story. This is where research, interviewing and filming come together. In consultation with the team, scenes or questions can be left out to make the film stronger. 

  • To be bound to the truth. You are not allowed to transform what a guest/main character has said into another story. 

  • To look for suitable music or sounds for the film and make titles if necessary. The researchers will provide these and are responsible for correct spelling.

Responsibilities:

  • Assembly of the complete film.

  • Practice with the assembly tool if necessary.

  • Getting the right laptop/computer for editing from your teacher.

  • Providing music and audio for the entire film.

  • Close consultation with the interviewer and cameraman/woman about choices to be made in the editing (what do you leave out, in what order do you tell your story).

* A good editor will watch the editing tutorial→  and read the steps for editing → . If time allows, also watch the filming tutorial →

Steps for Editing

Preparation

  • Get a computer or laptop.
  • Download an editing programme and test it out.

  • Look at the instructions.

  • Upload the film material together with the cameraman/woman using the following programmes;

You can edit with the following programs;

Choosing

  • Go through all the material and choose the best parts (together with the interviewer/cameraman-woman).

First draft

  • Make a first draft of your editing and do not hesitate to switch scenes to see if it improves your story.

  • Adopt tips from the tutorial in your editing.

  • Discuss your options with the team.

  • Save!!!! Use your save button as much as you can or use an auto saver that will save your edit every 10 minutes. 

Final draft

  • Finalise your editing.
  • Choose music that is free of copyright restrictions as indicated in the tutorial. (links in tutorial)

  • Add sound effects.

  • Add titles.

Download as MP4

Download your film as an MP4 file and send it to your teacher via email or WeTransfer

ANNEX 3 : Assessment grid for the students’ documentaries

download

download the assessment as a pdf file here

ANNEX 4: Statement of Consent VPRO project ‘In Europe Schools'

ANNEX 4: Statement of Consent VPRO project ‘In Europe Schools'

If you interview a youngster under the age of 18 you have to make a statement of constent to sign for his or her parent;

you can download the word doc to print here

Specifications for filming on a mobile phone

Settings:

Please set your phone to record at 1080p HD resolution by following these instructions:

  • iPhone: Please set your iPhone to said resolution via Settings >Camera>Record Video. Pick 1080p HD at 30fps.

  • Android Samsung, Huawei, HTC, etc: This differs per phone, but these settings can mostly be found via the settings menu inside the camera app or via the general settings menu. In this menu locate the video size menu. Best setting for filming is 1080p HD and 25fps.

  • If this option is not available on your phone, please make sure it is not a number below 1080p and/or 25fps or above 50fps.

Stability:

Try to create a stable environment by using a tripod or a chair to lean on.

Sound

If possible, use an additional microphone. If you do not have one, avoid filming too far away from your sound object or person.

Extra sound and synchronisation:

You could also use an extra phone to record the sound but then you have to synchronise both phones using a clap:

  • Start the audio on one phone and the camera on the other. Now synchronise by clapping your hands slowly. Make sure you record and film the hands and sound.

  • Do not stop your phone after this point. If you stop, you will have to sync again.

  • When editing, you can synchronise the clap with the image of the clap and then the sound and image will run at the same speed.

And last but not least, watch the filming tutorial before you start shooting.

Good luck !

TO CLOSE THIS FILE CLICK AT 'CLOSE' ^

Step 4

Sharing and reflection (90 minutes)

Part 1:

Exchange and discussion within and with the partner school

Students will watch the videos created by other groups, and the partner school to  compare and discuss their conclusions about the topic and enquiry question within the school and with the partner school . This step is the most interesting and important part of the project, as students will watch others’ videos and exchange the different perspectives of the topic. 

CLICK HERE TO OPEN - Step 4 Part 1 ⌄

Introduction

This step is the most interesting and important part of the project, as students will watch others’ videos and exchange their opinions about the topic. 

Lesson Objective

Students will compare and discuss their conclusions about the topic and enquiry question within the school and with the partner school after watching the documentaries they have all produced.

Preparation and materials

  • The videos of your class correctly uploaded to the web

  • The links to the videos made by the students of the partner school

  • Assessment grid for co-assessing the videos (annex 1) if you haven't given them to students before.

  • Agree on exchange and discussion with the teacher from the partner school (  platform, timing, etc). This could be done in a asynchronous (Skype, hangout, etc.) or a-synchronous way like by email or in a Q&A-forum as it is not always possible to arrange for two classes in two different schools to synchronise schedules.

  • To prepare for this session, students could send questions to the other school to discuss during the screening of each other’s documentaries. This would also help to structure the exchanges. If the students list their possible questions first, the teacher can select the ones that are most interesting. 

Planning grid

    1. Explain to students that they will watch the documentaries they created along with those created by their European colleagues, and then afterwards, they will have a discussion session with the partner school.

  1. Sharing and commenting activities  

    1. Sharing and commenting on the videos within schools   

      1. Share the videos with the whole class. 

      2. Organise a discussion and feedback session afterwards. 

      3. Remind your students to:

        1. be respectful commenting

        2. appreciate the work done by the other students

        3. give constructive feedback

        4. compare the similarities and differences of the local/regional cases

        5. discuss the ethical dimension of different attitudes and behaviours in relation to "a difficult past".

      4. Students can fill in the assessment grid for co-assessing the videos of their colleagues, now or at the end of the project. 

    1. Sharing of the videos between schools and preparing for discussion  

      1. Share and watch the videos from the partner class. Give background to the regional or national history reflected in the videos. 

      2. Prepare the students for discussion with the partner class: 

        1. What are you  going to talk about?

        2. How will students organise themselves to participate?

    1. Discussion between schools 

      1. Understand, compare and discuss the videos with the other group via Skype, chat, etc.

      2. Questions about the videos can relate to specific details, background or aspects the students may not be familiar with or fully understand.

      3. The idea would be to analyse the different perspectives shown through the videos (outcomes: differences/similarities ) with questions like:

        1. Compare the case studies, what similarities can you find?

        2. What are the differences? Do you think these differences are specific for this town/region/country or dependent on other factors? 

        3. Does the partner class have the same viewpoint on the issue?  

        4. Did they provide information or viewpoints that were previously unknown to you?

  2. Conclusion 

    1. If time allows, take a moment to draw conclusions from the discussion session in a whole class setting.

Annex 1 : Assessment grid for the students’ documentaries

download

download the assessment as a pdf file here

TO CLOSE THIS FILE CLICK AT 'CLOSE' ^

Part 2:

Final reflection and assessment

This step will close the project, providing opportunities for individual/group reflection and assessment focused on the topics covered, the documentary-making process and the project as a whole.

Students will reflect on the development of their opinions on the topic and self-assess/co-assess their documentaries, the projects and their experience of sharing their perspectives with other European students.

Please note

Please fill in this survey at the end of the last lesson in class. It helps us to learn from your experiences and to keep upgrading the project.

Ask your students to fill in the student survey at the end of the last lesson in class.

CLICK HERE TO OPEN - Step 4 Part 2 ⌄

Final Reflection and Assessment (same for all units )

Introduction

This lesson will close the project, providing opportunities for individual/group reflection and assessment focused on the topics covered throughout the lesson, the documentary-making process and the project as a whole.

Lesson Objective

Students will reflect on the development of their opinions on the topic and self-assess/co-assess their documentaries, the projects and their experience of sharing their perspectives with other European students.

Preparation and materials

  • The picture you took in the first step, where students provided their initial opinions on the research question. This will be a useful tool for contextualising the development of their ideas throughout the project. 

  • Examples/suggestions for individual/group reflection, including the European dimension

  • Assessment grid for co-assessing the videos and assessment grid for the teacher to assess the documentary if it was not given to students previously (annex 1)  

Planning grid

  1. Introduction

    1. Explain to students that they will reflect on and assess the whole project.

  2. Reflection activity 

    1. Discuss the research question by using the students’ answers from the first lesson to incite discussion and to see if and how they changed their opinions on the question.

    2. Write group/individual reflections on the topic and the enquiry question.

      1. Reflection can focus on student feelings, reactions and drawing comparisons between the ideas they had at the beginning of the lesson and the ones they developed after having learnt about the topic. 

      2. Points of discussion could include: the video and its context, global and local examples, knowledge of other students’ opinions, etc.

      3. You can also ask students to write down whether or not they have changed their mind/developed new thoughts and why. 

        1. This can be first be done at an individual level, so that students reflect on their own development. Afterwards, reflection can be expanded to a whole class discussion. If you have a picture of their opinions from the beginning of the project, you can project it and let students make comparisons.

  3. Assessment

    1.  Assessment has multiple parts:

      1. Assessing the topic and quality of the videos the students have created. 

        1. This can be done as co-assessment and/or completed by the teacher, using the assessment grid. 

      2. Assessing the complete project. 

        1. Prepare some questions to discuss individually/in small groups:

          1. How did you feel about group work? (roles, timing, responsibilities, etc.) 

          2. Do you think it is important to research and discuss controversial topics like these?

          3. Did the exchange with other students help open your mind to new ideas about the topic? 

        2. Have students write down two of the best aspects of the project and two things to improve. 

  4. Conclusion 

    1. Evaluate the project: 

      1. What was it like making a film? 

      2. What was it like working with a class from another country? 

      3. For both questions: What was especially difficult? What would you/ what should we do differently if organising a similar project in the future?

* Please fill this short questionnaire with your class after you have closed the project

 

Annex 1 : Assessment grid for the students’ documentaries

download

download the assessment as a pdf file here

TO CLOSE THIS FILE CLICK AT 'CLOSE' ^

Assessment